Systematics Section / ASPT
Manns, Ulrika , Anderberg, Arne A. .
Phylogeny and character evolution in Anagallis.
ANAGALLIS (Myrsinaceae), with 31 recognized species, includes small herbaceous, erect or decumbent plants diagnosed by the presence of circumscissile capsules. Most species have a limited distribution, several in tropical East Africa, others in Madagascar, South Africa or the Mediterranean region. A few species are more widespread, e. g. Anagallis arvensis or "the Scarlet pimpernel". Earlier broad-scale molecular studies place Anagallis nested within Lysimachia and the two Anagallis species included, A. arvensis and A. minima (Centunculus minimus), are found in separate clades raising questions on the monophyly of Anagallis. Here we evaluate the relationships of Anagallis based on phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from both the nucleus and the plastid. A parsimony analysis of combined data show that Anagallis is monophyletic, but only if Asterolinon and Pelletiera as well as Lysimachia nemorum and L. serpyllifolia are included. In this broadly circumscribed Anagallis two clades appear, both with strong molecular support. In the first clade, Anagallis arvensis and Anagallis monelli are found together with Asterolinon, Pelletiera, and the two Lysimachia species, while all other Anagallis are found in the second clade. Morphological characters also supports the two clades. Synapomorphies for the first clade is an ascending, or sometimes erect, habit, opposite, sessile leaves, and flowers with ovate or obovate corolla lobes, fringed with glands. In the second clade a prostrate habit, alternate, shortly petiolated leaves, flowers with oblong corolla lobes without glands along margins are ancestral characters. In a small ingroup in this clade, an erect habit has evolved. The circumscissile capsules, previously used to identify the genus, have evolved twice.
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1 - Stockholm University, Department of Botany, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, SE-10691, Sweden
2 - Swedish Museum of Natural History, Department of Phanerogamic Botany, P.O. Box 50007, Stockholm, SE-104 05, Sweden
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Date: Tuesday, August 1st, 2006
Time: 3:00 PM